Remaining humidity in exposed soils rapidly evaporates in the intensive sunlight, so that resulting biological productivity is a fraction of that of restored ecosystems. Two parallel strategies are being recommended to cope with global warming: As a result, purchase of food by and food aid to many countries has increased dramatically in the last few decades.
Rehabilitation of degraded drylands would also restore essential ecosystem services such as biodiversity, sustainable wood supply, fodder, food, and renewable energy—essential commodities in a world more and more limited in land and water Leu, ; Abu Rabbia et al.
Since a quiet revolution has been taking place, and today 90 per cent of soil conservation efforts in India are based on such biological systems. Preventive measures for combating drought and halting the spread of the deserts, as highlighted by the UNCED in Agenda 21, include: Desertification has become a longstanding and increasingly severe problem in many parts of the world, and in developing countries in particular.
An accepted definition of the time was that of Dregne The implementation of the U. Area in 1, km 2. Whatever the causes, the processes of degradation or desertification involve damage to the vegetation cover.
In intact or restored ecosystems, large amounts of water can infiltrate through layers of plant litter into rich topsoil, whereby decomposing litter releases the nutrients required for vigorous plant growth Fig. Decision-makers are understandably averse to invest in arid zones with low potential.
The quality of these soils may be an inherent property of the land or it may be due to human-induced degradation over long periods of time Oldeman et al. Massive displacement within the country could further undermine a fragile political system and contribute to militancy, which is already on the rise.
Land degradation, due to the large area and number of people affected by it, is clearly human induced. Initially the focus was on desert margins UNEPthough there was clear recognition that land degradation was a widespread problem.
The landscape may go through different stages and transform in appearance as the process of desertification takes place. Bunded fields yield an average of 10 per cent more produce than traditional fields in a normal year, and in the drier years almost 50 per cent more. Published reports of degradation Oldeman et al.
Sahara desert covers the largest area with the desert climate in Africa. Poverty and unsustainable land use practices will continue to be the main factors driving desertification in the near future, and climate change will also play a role.
This presents initial data on risks and is a basis for mitigating technologies and corrective measures. The estimated annual rate of deforestation during washa and the area annually deforested as a percentage of the total forest area in the country was 0.
Soil moisture stress, as indicated earlier, is perhaps the overriding constraint in much of Africa. This simple and low-cost method has enabled farmers to regenerate some 30, square kilometers in Niger. The units on the soil map of Africa were sequentially tested commencing from class 25 until the soil condition was matched by one of the classes.
Environmental organizations  work in places where deforestation and desertification are contributing to extreme poverty.
In light of these facts, the huge environmental and economic potential of ecosystem restoration, especially in degraded dryland environments, becomes acutely evident. Gnacadja, a former environment minister in Benin, said combating desertification and soil degradation requires better land management, better equipment and new technology to manage water, drought resistant seeds and payment to communities for preserving the soil.
How will different future development paths influence desertification? The statewise distribution of arid zones in India is shown in figure 6. Acacia woodland 18 years old: Additionally, properly spaced and pruned trees can increase crop yields.
A farmer in semi-arid Burkina Faso works as a blacksmith during the dry season Source: All these changes in microclimate also bring about ecological changes. The predicted timescales have been confirmed in nearby farming ventures, as well as during the first three years of project implementation at Project Wadi Attir.
Countermeasures And Prevention Measures exist for mitigating and reversing the effects of land degradation.With rising temperatures and changing climates, higher rates of desertification is becoming a major issue in many parts of the world.
Desertification is a major issue associated with global warming induced climate change. Severe land degradation has affected over countries around the world.
Combatting desertification is therefore predicted to play a central role, both in mitigating global warming, and in adaptation to global warming. Together with expected positive economic and social impacts, dryland restoration emerges as a top-priority, win-win approach in sustainable development.
Desertification and land degradation is "the greatest environmental challenge of our time" and "a threat to global wellbeing", according to the UN's top drylands official, Luc Gnacadja, who says.
Desertification is a type of land degradation in which a relatively dry area of land becomes increasingly arid, typically losing its bodies of water as well as vegetation and wildlife. It is caused by a variety of factors, such as through climate change (particularly the current global warming) and through the overexploitation of soil through human activity.
Climate change and mass migration: a growing threat to global security. Farid Ahmed/IRIN. Jared Ferrie. Twitter; Asia Editor.
However, South Asia, and the threat multiplier effects could reach far further than many expect. Land Resource Stresses and Desertification in Africa. P.F. REICH, S.T.
NUMBEM, R.A. ALMARAZ and H. ESWARAN Release of CO2 into the atmosphere contributes to global warming and there is also an important loss of biodiversity.
Correcting the degradation effects will be more expensive and the low resilience characteristics of many of the.Download