Specifically, for half of each session the therapist engaged in an activity that was categorized as busy, and during the other half of each session, the therapist engaged in an activity that was categorized as nonbusy.
The order of busy and nonbusy activities within each pair was randomized across sessions such that approximately one half of all sessions began with a busy activity and the other half began with a nonbusy activity. The therapist taught both participants their targeted communication response using procedures similar to those described by Fisher et al.
For each communication response, separate data were collected for responses that occurred during busy and nonbusy periods. Thus, during each of these times, caregivers would be likely to engage in behaviors that could be characterized as either busy or nonbusy.
A total of six sessions were conducted in this phase such that each therapist activity busy and nonbusy was presented only once.
Most, if not all, applied research on multiple schedules has employed artificial stimuli to signal the reinforcement schedules, such as drawings, cards, and leis Fisher et al.
At the start of the session, the therapist removed the food. For all analyses and treatment evaluations, interobserver agreement for frequency-based measures was computed using a proportional agreement calculation. After this observing behavior was modeled for two sessions, identical training sessions were conducted with Greg.
The number of children enrolled in Classrooms A, B, and C were 12, 12, and 10, respectively, and a broad range of skill levels kindergarten through sixth grade and ages 5 through 13 years were represented in each of the three classrooms.
Following the introduction of the multiple schedules, student approaches toward their teacher were maintained during desirable periods but were minimized during undesirable periods.
For each session, one busy and one nonbusy activity were selected randomly from the list. These overt behaviors may have discriminative functions, especially when they are associated with differential reinforcement.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. For both participants, FCT evaluations were conducted with reversal designs.
First, the relevant stimuli provide salient cues regarding the availability or unavailability of reinforcement. There appear to be several benefits of using a multiple-schedule arrangement to facilitate reinforcer delivery thinning following FCT. Each session was partitioned into s bins.
Finally, for this arrangement to be successful, the individual must attend to the relevant stimuli. Procedure Baseline Teachers conducted all typical routines during baseline conditions, which involved responding to student social approaches and providing academic assistance as needed.Functional communication training (FCT) is a popular treatment for problem behaviors, but its effectiveness may be compromised when the client emits the target communication response and reinforcement is either delayed or denied.
Functional Communication Training (FCT) Brief Introduction Establishing discriminative control of responding using functional Braithwaite, K.
&chdale,Ri A. (). Functional communication training to replace challenging behaviors across two. Establishing discriminative control of responding using functional and alternative reinforcers during functional communication training.
Following the introduction of the observing behavior contingency into both Pairs 1 and 2, Greg rarely emitted the communication response when the therapist was busy, as evidenced by the percentage of communication responses that occurred in the presence of busy activities in Pairs 1 and 2 (Ms = % and %, respectively).
Brown, K. E., & Mirenda, P. (). Contingency mapping: Use of a novel visual support strategy as an adjunct to functional equivalence training.
Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8, Buckley, S. D., & Newchok, D. K. (). Differential impact of response effort within a response chain on use of mands in a student with autism.
Latency measures showed that the antecedent stimulus correlated with punishment served as the discriminative stimulus for the suppression of stereotypy. These results are important insofar as they show that discriminative control by an antecedent stimulus develops with punishment, and because it sometimes may be desirable to establish .Download