Spartan commanders, often seen as the pinnacle of Greek military prowess, were known for their tactical trickery, and, An overview of the illiad them, this was a feat to be desired in a commander. Achilleus grants the Trojans a grace period to perform their funeral rituals.
Much of the detailed fighting in the Iliad is done by the heroes in an orderly, one-on-one fashion. Aggrieved, Achilles tears his hair and dirties his face.
Because Patroklos and his army are rested and fresh, they easily drive the weary Trojans back to the city wall. Apollo then revenges the ill treatment shown to his priest by sending a plague to the Greeks.
During the battle, the Achaeans capture a pair of beautiful maidens, Chryseis and Briseis. Yet, Achilles must choose only one of the two rewards, either nostos or kleos. Each accepts the outcome of his life, yet, no-one knows if the gods can alter fate. In his grief over his friend, Achilleus has been dishonoring the body of Hektor, but the gods have kept it from mutilation.
While there are discussions of soldiers arrayed in semblances of the phalanx throughout the Iliad, the focus of the poem on the heroic fighting, as mentioned above, would seem to contradict the tactics of the phalanx. But when the Trojan army glimpses Achilles, it flees in terror back behind the city walls.
These eNotes are based on the Richmond Lattimore translation of the Iliad. And put away in your heart this other thing that I tell you. However, the gods transfigure him and when he shows himself on the battlefield the Trojans pull back and the Achaians escape.
This time, it is Athene who challenges him: He vows to never again obey orders from Agamemnon. In order to discern these effects, it is necessary to take a look at a few examples from each of these categories. After the duel, which ends with Paris being taken out of the battle by Aphrodite, the truce is broken by Pandaros, the Trojan, and the two armies engage in bitter fighting.
At last, the gods agree that Hector deserves a proper burial. Hybris forces Paris to fight against Menelaus.
Several days of violent fighting follow, at the end of which the Trojans have the Achaians pinned against the beach, and are threatening to burn their ships. Much like the Odyssey, there is even a set ritual which must be observed in each of these conflicts.
However, over the span of the day, most of the best men are injured and taken out of the fight. The epic takes as its thesis the anger of Achilles and the destruction it brings.
Defeat seems imminent, because without the ships, the army will be stranded at Troy and almost certainly destroyed.
Whether or not the gods can alter fate, they do abide it, despite its countering their human allegiances; thus, the mysterious origin of fate is a power beyond the gods. Patroklos fights bravely and performs many courageous acts, but he pushes his luck and is eventually killed by Hektor.
Hektor takes the famous armor of Achilleus from Patroklos, and a fierce battle is fought over his body. He demands Briseis, the woman given to Achilleus in the same siege. He vengefully yearns to see the Achaeans destroyed and asks his mother, the sea-nymph Thetis, to enlist the services of Zeus, king of the gods, toward this end.
Influence on classical Greek warfare[ edit ] While the Homeric poems the Iliad in particular were not necessarily revered scripture of the ancient Greeks, they were most certainly seen as guides that were important to the intellectual understanding of any educated Greek citizen.
Agamemnon eventually agrees, but only if he gets to take Briseis, the girlfriend of Achilleus, the greatest warrior of the Achaians. I shall convey her back in my own ship, with my own followers; but I shall take the fair-cheeked Briseis, your prize, I myself going to your shelter, that you may learn well how much greater I am than you, and another man may shrink back from likening himself to me and contending against me.
But come, let us ourselves get him away from death, for fear the son of Kronos may be angered if now Achilleus kills this man.
He also asks his mother, the goddess Thetis, to plead with Zeus to help him avenge the wrong. Kleos is often given visible representation by the prizes won in battle. So it was here that the lord of men Agamemnon angered me.
Date and textual history[ edit ] Further information: There are a total of 24 books in the Iliad, totaling roughly hours of reading time. But here is my threat to you.Free summary and analysis of the events in Homer's The Iliad that won't make you snore.
We promise. The Iliad is a great poem, but also one which presents a number of difficulties for the first-time reader. This page is designed to be a jumping-off point to help you overcome some of the common difficulties readers have with Homer's Iliad, and also to provide tools to enhance and deepen your reading of the poem.
Click on any of the following topics to. In The Iliad, both gods and men struggle to bring an end to the ten year Trojan War.
Great Greek warrior Achilles kills Hector in battle, crippling. Plot Overview. Nine years after the start of the Trojan War, the Greek (“Achaean”) army sacks Chryse, a town allied with Troy. During the battle, the Achaeans capture a pair of beautiful maidens, Chryseis and Briseis.
The Iliad (/ ˈ ɪ l i ə d /; Ancient Greek: Ἰλιάς Iliás, pronounced in Classical Attic; sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer.
From a general summary to chapter summaries to explanations of famous quotes, the SparkNotes The Iliad Study Guide has everything you need to .Download