Sicily had been under the Muslim rule from to This was the result of a clash between the orthodoxy and Muslim rationalistic trend. Islamic civilization is depicted as an alien culture with no or minimal contributions to human civilization and progress especially in the American context.
In some cities, such as Damascus, Venetians lived outside the fondaco in rented property in the town alongside the local population. It does not make sense that the Europe which for centuries had no or minimal contact with the Greco-Roman sciences and philosophy suddenly woke up to understand, digest, master and apply these sophisticated philosophical concept and scientific precincts.
Locke copied these criticisms and forwarded them to friends such as Jean le Clerc. The reformers completed the unfinished reformation of Luther by rejecting the Trinity, Original Sin and justification through grace and went far ahead in promoting the Mohammaden Christianity and its republican ideals.
They became the center of Muslim scholasticism, a middle road between the extremes of conservative orthodoxy and liberal rationalists.
In direct relation, Protestantism also made great headways, and during the second half of the century Catholic Hungary became a Protestant land. It was the other way around. These British Socinians strongly advocated reformation of the Christian dogmas, practices and morals in light of the Islamic Unitarian theology and humanistic morals.
The encounters in the Holy Land during the Crusades were not trivial.
He has shown that a major part of the Western intellectual culture owed its origins to Arabo-Islamic contributions including the medieval universities and centers of learning. Their clandestine and radical works were known to the moderate reformers such as John Locke as they were friends and colleagues.
The modesty and the simplicity of their food, clothing, dwellings, and everything else, as well as the fasts, prayers, and common gatherings of the people [at mosque] that this book reveals are nowhere seen among us …. The idea of free will was more popular with humanists than their scholastic counterparts.
Not even true Christians, nor Christ himself, not the apostles or prophets ever exhibited so great a display [of religiosity]. Islamic culture received crucial stimulation from the Iranian and, especially, from the Greek culture … without thereby losing its identity.
The resultant intellectual movement was called the Renaissance.Islam, Muslims and Islamic civilization are under siege in America. Subsequent to the tragic incidents of September 11, Afghanistan and Iraq wars, ISIS’s barbarism and Paris shooting, Islam both as religion and community has witnessed some of the worst attacks upon its heritage and legacy unprecedented in the previous history.
Published: Tue, 13 Jun The relationship between the mind and body has been a preoccupation among philosophers since the Greek antiquity, with famous writers such as 5th Century philosopher Plato, and his student Aristotle.Download