If research findings can be applied to any sample from the population, the results of the research are said to be generalizable.
So choosing the best data collection tool improves the accuracy of research. They are called the characteristics of research. Types of samples The best sampling is probability sampling, because it increases the likelihood of obtaining samples that are representative of the population.
These terms determine whether a research is free of biases, prejudices, and subjective errors or not. How to Construct a probability representative sample Nonprobability samples Non-representative samples As they are not truly representative, non-probability samples are less desirable than probability samples.
A certain percentage of secondary data can be used if the primary source is not available but basing a research completely on secondary data when primary data can be gathered is least credible. Accuracy is also the degree to which each research process, instrument, and tool is related to each other.
Stratified samples The characteristics of different kinds of research as good as or better than random samples, but they require a fairly detailed advance knowledge of the population characteristics, and therefore are more difficult to construct.
This is a variable which interferes with the independent and dependent variables, but its effects can either strengthen or weaken the independent and dependent variables. Then the population is randomly sampled within each category or stratum.
Random sample The term random has a very precise meaning. This is generally done to insure the inclusion of a particular segment of the population.
They provide the most valid or credible results because they reflect the characteristics of the population from which they are selected e. This is a decision-oriented research involving the application of the steps of the scientific method in response to an immediate need to improve existing practices.
Here, research is conducted in a natural setting. It is used to solve a problem by adding to the field of application of a discipline. This is a secondary or special type of independent variable chosen by the researcher to determine if it changes or modifies the relationship between the independent and dependent variables.
Probability sampling Representative samples Probability samples are selected in such a way as to be representative of the population.
For example if a research has to be conducted on the trans-gender people, several data collection tools can be used depending on the research problems but if you find that population less cooperative the best way is to observe them rather than submitting questionnaire because in questionnaire either they will give biased responses or they will not return the questionnaires at all.
This type of research involves seeking new applications of scientific knowledge to the solution of a problem, such as a development of a new system or procedure, new device, or new method in order to solve the problem.
To undertake researches in different fields, there are a variety of procedures and tools set by experienced researchers. A research is biased or fake if there is no validity or reliability in the research process.
There are other definitions of research which also state that research is the seeking of knowledge in systematic, organized manner. The research which is done for human welfare, animal welfare and plant kingdom welfare. A experimental research that may not be or will be helpful in the human progress.
Snowball samples are particularly useful in hard-to-track populations, such as truants, drug users, etc. Basic research[ edit ] This research is conducted largely for the enhancement of knowledge, and is research which does not have immediate commercial potential.
There are two types of probability samples: Stratified sample A stratified sample is a mini-reproduction of the population. With the advancement in research processes each day new methods, tools and procedures are developed and each tool or procedure is suitable for one form of research but has limitations for another form of research.
The research is conducted in artificial or controlled conditions by isolating the study in a thoroughly specified and equipped area.
It focuses on analysis and solving social and real life problems. Reliability is the repeatability of any research, research instrument, tool or procedure. Problem oriented research[ edit ] Research is done by industry apex body for sorting out problems faced by all the companies.
The reliability of these tools have been checked over a period of time and are therefore approved to be fit for undertaking research.
A researcher is interested in the attitudes of members of different religions towards the death penalty. Validity of the research instrument can be defined as the suitability of the research instrument to the research problem or how accurately the instrument measures the problem.
Fundamental research, of which this is based on establishing various theories Also the research is classified into: Definition More than hundreds of definitions of research have been available in written form in different books, encyclopedias, dictionaries and in the research literature.
Moreover, objectivity is the primary guard so that the research may be replicated by others, if necessary. This is the response variable which is observed and measured to determine the effect of the independent variable.
Although selection may be unguided, it probably is not random, using the correct definition of everyone in the population having an equal chance of being selected. Convenience sample A convenience sample is a matter of taking what you can get.Observational research is a group of different research methods where researchers try to observe a phenomenon without interfering too much.
Observational research methods, such as the case study, are probably the furthest removed from. For further details, you can read his book Research Methodology to gain more insight into the characteristics of research. Definition More than hundreds of definitions of research have been available in written form in different books, encyclopedias, dictionaries and in the research literature.
Video: What Are The Different Kinds of Research Methods? This lesson will go over some important research methods, including observation, correlation, and experimentation, as well as examples of.
chapter 1: meaning and characteristics of research ü Meaning of Research Research is defined as the scientific investigation of phenomena which includes collection, presentation, analysis and interpretation of facts that lines an.
Before sampling, the population is divided into characteristics of importance for the research. For example, by gender, social class, education level, religion, etc. Then the population is randomly sampled within each category or stratum.
TYPES OF RESEARCH The different characteristics of research: Research May be Applied or Basic The purpose of applied research is to solve an.Download